Human Cloning

Talking about cloning always bring human to deep imagination. In this era, who never listened about cloning. This 5th topic from Bioethics class is very Interesting. For some people, when the heard “Cloning” word, perhaps they will say “dolly!” or the other people will say “a technology that can copy a thing become two things with similar characteristic. Anyway, what is cloning or clones? Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical [1]. May be , because of that there are many imagination will be appear when a person listen this word. Can you Imagine if you have another you in different body or what will happen if there is a clonaid (human Cloning) that have similar with a terrorist?. Before doing too much imagination about cloning, we should know clones can happen naturally or they can be made in the lab [1].  Talking about naturally clones Identical twins is one for the example of it.

human cloning

This 5th topic more talking about clones that made in lab.  Multipotent stem  cells can be said as a clones technique that did in lab. Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. Unfortunately after this case, the foundation that funding cloning research at Rosalin university stopped their donation. One of cloning’s aim is to study genetic disorders and disease susceptibility. After cloning was successfully demonstrated through the production of Dolly, many other large mammals were cloned, including pigs, deer, horses and bulls. The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. Cloning may have uses in preserving endangered species and may become a viable tool for reviving extinct species. In January 2009, scientists from the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, in Zaragoza, northern Spain announced the cloning of the Pyrenean ibex, a form of wild mountain goat, which was officially declared extinct in 2000. Although the newborn ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs it is the first time an extinct animal has been cloned, and may open doors for saving endangered and newly extinct species by resurrecting them from frozen tissue.

The prospect of cloning humans is highly controversial, and it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. To subject human beings to cloning is not taking an unknown risk, it’s knowingly harming people. It will be immoral things to do when a person doing cloning to make babies for spare parts. I am strongly against this action. Cloning a human  have big risk, if the clonoid is success it will not be a big problem, but what if the clonoid is unsuccess, for the example this living thing have disability or something wrong. Will the parents (the individu who took their organ to be clones) accept this living things or trash it? Dolly was the only sheep out of 277 attempts that made it to a live birth. Who would accept those odds when experimenting with human babies?

However, there are people who agree with cloning to have a child. Some may be parents who have lost a baby and want to replace it, others may be people who want children of their own but can’t have them in the traditional way. For example, where a man cannot produce sperm he could get his own DNA inserted into his partner’s egg – creating a clone of himself.

Actually, talking about cloning always refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning. Every country has different way to face the research about cloning. In some country such as Australia, Canada, Colombia, Romania,Serbia clones is prohibited. It is common sense because if we see from religious perspective, cloning system disturbing the balance of nature. Taking the example : what will happen if in the future, cloning become usual thing.  A person does not need to do fertilization to get her generation. May be in that time, woman will not need a man. And also  it brings human to a big questions about God’s existences. Let’s Imagine again, what will happen if someday there is a kid that want to know who is her father, and in fact she get two person who has same DNA with her. In  the other hand the other person married with the other girl, not with his mother. From Wikipedia, I read that ethictists have speculated on difficulties that might arise in world where human clones exist. Taking the example, human cloning might change the shape of family structure by complicating the role of parenting within a family of convoluted kinship relations.

Jurgen Habermas said “When a person knows that his genome is pre-programmed by somebody else, he will change his auto-perception toward his physical and mental excistance. His recognition of self the product of a pre-programmed person will overlap or even replace his spontaneous being. The failure ti make distinction between spontaneous and artificial will engrave his existential modality. This changing of auto perception happens in his brain and it will affect his way of regard his existence.” [3]

Indonesia does not have law on human cloning whether  reproductive or therapeutic cloning but this country has ethical guidance for reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In Indonesia, the research about cloning is growing rapidly.

 

References :

[1] http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/

[2] http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/multipotentstemcells.html

[3] http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Public-Hearings-Cloning-Kusmaryanto-Indonesia.pdf

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